Evolution of Galaxy-Spanning Magnetic Fields Explained
by Jonathan Sherwood for the University of Rochester
Researchers at the University of Rochester have uncovered how giant magnetic
fields up to a billion, billion miles across, such as the one that envelopes our
galaxy, are able to take shape despite a mystery that suggested they should
collapse almost before they'd begun to form. Astrophysicists have long believed
that as these large magnetic fields grow, opposing small-scale fields should
grow more quickly, thwarting the evolution of any giant magnetic field. The team
discovered instead that the simple motion of gas can fight against those
small-scale fields long enough for the large fields to form. The results are
published in a recent issue of Physical Review
"Understanding exactly how these large-scale fields form has
been a problem for astrophysicists for a long time," says Eric Blackman,
assistant professor of physics and astronomy. "For almost 50 years the standard
approaches have been plagued by a fundamental mystery that we have now
The mechanism, called a dynamo, that creates the large-scale
field twists up the magnetic field lines as if they were elastic ribbons
embedded in the sun, galaxy or other celestial object. Turbulence kicked up by
shifting gas, supernovae, or nearly any kind of random movement of matter,
combined with the fact that the star or galaxy is spinning carries these ribbons
outward toward the edges. As they expand outward they slow like a spinning
skater extending her arms and the resulting speed difference causes the ribbons
to twist up into a large helix, creating the overall orderly structure of the
The turbulence that creates the large-scale field, however, also
creates opposing small-scale fields due to the principle of conservation of
magnetic helicity. As both large and small fields get stronger, they start to
suppress the turbulence that gave rise to them. This is called a "backreaction,"
and researchers have long suspected that it might halt the growth of the large
field long before it reached the strength we see in the universe today. Blackman
and George Field, the Robert Wheeler Wilson Professor of Applied Astronomy at
Harvard University, found that in the early stages the backreaction was weak
allowing the large field to grow quickly to full strength. Once the large field
comes to a certain strength, however, conservation of magnetic helicity will
have made the backreaction strong enough to overcome the turbulence and stop
further growth of the large field. The large-scale field and the backreaction
then keep to a steady equilibrium.
To tease out the exact nature of the
backreaction, the team took a new approach to the problem. "Most computer
simulations use brute force," Blackman explains. "They take every known variable
and crank through them. Such simulations are important because they yield
results, but like experiments, you don't know what variables were responsible
for giving you those results without further investigation."
Field simplified the problem to pinpoint which variables affected the outcome.
They found that only the helical component of the small field contributes to the
backreaction, twisting in the opposite direction to that of the large field.
Scientists were not sure how strong the backreaction had to be to start
influencing the turbulence, but the team has shown that the backreaction is weak
when the large-scale field is weak, having little effect on the turbulence. It's
not until the large field grows quite strong that the backreaction grows strong
as well and begins to suppress the motions of matter, stopping the further
growth of the overarching magnetic field.
The simple theory will likely
be able to explain how magnetic fields evolve in stars like our sun, whole
galaxies, and even gamma-ray bursts-the most powerful bursts of energy ever seen
in the universe. Scientists suspect that gamma-ray bursts use powerful magnetic
fields to catapult intense outflows into space. In addition, the theory explains
the ordered magnetic structures that emerge in advanced "brute force"
computational experiments by Axel Brandenburg, professor at the Nordic Institute
for Theoretical Astrophysics, and by Jason Maron, postdoctoral fellow at the
University of Rochester. Blackman is now collaborating with both scientists to
further explore the consequences of the theory.
This research was funded
by the U.S. Department of Energy.
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